The tutorial book is addressed to English-speaking students of higher educational institutions of Ukraine. Its structure corresponds to the practice of teaching philosophy at universities and to the historical development of this discipline. The tutorial book is characterized by a concise, but the logically connected recount of the material, which expands according to the principle «from simple to complex». At the basis of this logic is the task to trace the historical development of human thinking and cognition. At the same time, the theoretical statements are accompanied by references to the practice.